St. Thomas More
Given the grand sweep of British history, those are harsh words from a former Londoner. An English Catholic convert and author, Pearce is now a resident Fellow at Thomas More College in New Hampshire. But he merely said what many people thought: that the Olympic closing ceremony they watched on global television was one long liturgy of overripe vulgarity, a jamboree of cheesy and offensive pop culture. In effect, it showcased a nation grasping to reinvent itself by escaping back to adolescence while ignoring its own real past.
This shouldn't surprise us. Europe's work of reinvention, or self-delusion, has been going on for decades, not only in Britain but across the continent. One of the key obstacles to the process is the depth of Europe's Christian roots. As recent popes and many others have pointed out, there really is no "Europe" without its historic Christian grounding. Anyone wanting a new Britain, or a new Europe, needs to get rid of the old one first. So diminishing Christianity and its influence becomes a priority. And that includes rewriting the narrative on many of Christianity's achievements and heroes.
By way of evidence: Consider the case of Thomas More, lawyer, humanist, statesman and saint; martyred by England's King Henry VIII in 1535; canonized in 1935; celebrated in Robert Bolt's brilliant 1960 play A Man for All Seasons; and more recently trashed as proud, intolerant, and devious in Hilary Mantel's best-selling 2009 novel, Wolf Hall, now set for release as a 2013 BBC2 miniseries.
Critics of More are not new. His detractors had a voice well before his beheading. As Henry VIII's chancellor, he earned a reputation as a hammer of heretics and a fierce opponent of Martin Luther and William Tyndale. Yet Erasmus of Rotterdam revered More as a scholar and friend. Jonathan Swift, the great Anglo-Irish writer, described him as "a person of the greatest virtue this kingdom [of England] ever produced." When Pope John Paul II named Thomas More as patron saint of statesmen in 2000, he cited More's witness to the "primacy of truth over power" at the cost of his life. He noted that even outside the Church, More "is acknowledged as a source of inspiration for a political system which has as its supreme goal the service of the human person."
Ten years later, speaking to leaders of British society in Westminster Hall, Pope Benedict XVI returned to the same theme. Benedict noted that More "is admired by believers and non-believers alike for the integrity with which he followed his conscience, even at the cost of displeasing the sovereign whose 'good servant' he was, because he chose to serve God first."
So which is it: More the saint or More the sinner? Was he the ruthless, sexually repressed rage addict suggested by historians like G.R. Elton, fearful of change and driven by helpless fury? Or was he the humble and generous "man for all seasons" praised by his friend Robert Whittinton and so many others among his contemporaries? Were there really two Thomas Mores: the young, open-minded humanist, and the older royal courtier, gripped by religious fanaticism?
The moral integrity of More's life has been argued with persuasive skill in the various works of Gerard Wegemer, among many others. And Peter Ackroyd's fine biography, The Life of Thomas More, vividly captures the whole extraordinary man — his virtues, his flaws, and the decisive nature of his moment in history. Travis Curtright has now added to the luster of the real More's legacy with his excellent new book The One Thomas More.
As the title suggests,Curtright sees Thomas More's life as a consistent, organic record of Christian witness, start to finish; a thoroughly logical integration of humanism, piety, politics and polemical theology. There is only "one" Thomas More — a man of tender nobility, subtle intellect, and forceful conviction, all rooted in profound fidelity to the larger commonwealth of Christendom outside and above Tudor England. For Curtright, More embodied "the Erasmian ideal of wedding learning with virtue," lived through a vigorous engagement with temporal affairs. He treats More's scholarly critics with proper respect while methodically dismantling their arguments; and he does it by carefully unpacking and applying three of More's most important written works: The Life of Pico Mirandola, The History of Richard III, and Utopia.
Curtright correctly sees that More's real source of annoyance for many modern revisionist critics is his faith. If revisionists like Elton implicitly define "humanism" as excluding religious faith, then a man like Thomas More and the whole vast Christian tradition of integrating faith and reason become serious irritants. As Curtright observes:
The entire structures of the two Mores and real More theories congeal around [critics'] notions of a "true" humanism that excludes the possibility of faith and reason working together, a position transparently stated by [G.R.] Elton and one that influences contemporary condemnations of More as a "fanatic."
Bickering over the "real" Thomas More has importance beyond the scholarly community. Why? Because just as the nutty premises of Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code confused millions by reinventing the backstory of Christian belief, so too the novel Wolf Hall offers a revisionist Thomas More wrapped in popular melodrama. The author, Hilary Mantel, a lapsed Catholic whose disgust for the Church is a matter of public record, drew her portrait of More in part from the work of Elton. The "hero" of her novel is Thomas Cromwell — More's tormentor, and in reality, a man widely loathed by his contemporaries as an administratively gifted but scheming and vindictive bully. Unlike the widespread European shock that greeted More's judicial murder, few wept for Cromwell when he finally followed More to the scaffold.
The One Thomas More is not a book for beachside browsing. While it's well-written, modest in size and rich in content, it is a scholarly effort. Some casual readers may find it heavier than they bargained for. But as a resource on Thomas More, it's invaluable. Curtright's final chapter, "Iconic Mores on Trial," has special importance. It directly challenges Mantel's loose treatment of facts, for which it deserves wide circulation.
Having fought loudly and hard for religious liberty over the past year, in part because of the HHS mandate, America's Catholic bishops cannot simply grumble and shrug, and go along with the mandate now, without implicating themselves in cowardice.
Having said all this, Thomas More has been dead nearly 500 years. Why should his legacy matter today?
Barring relief from the courts, Christian entities, employers, and ministers in the coming year will face a range of unhappy choices. As the Affordable Care Act takes force and the HHS contraceptive mandate imposes itself on Christian life, Catholic and other Christian leaders can refuse to comply, either declining to pay the consequent fines in outright civil disobedience, or trying to pay them; they can divest themselves of their impacted Christian institutions; they can seek some unexplored compromise or way of circumventing the law; or they can simply give in and comply with the government coercion under protest.
Good people can obviously disagree on the strategy to deal with such serious matters. But the cost of choosing the last course — simply cooperating with the HHS mandate and its evil effects under protest — would be bitterly high and heavily damaging to the witness of the Church in the United States. Having fought loudly and hard for religious liberty over the past year, in part because of the HHS mandate, America's Catholic bishops cannot simply grumble and shrug, and go along with the mandate now, without implicating themselves in cowardice. Their current resolve risks unraveling unless they reaffirm their opposition to the mandate forcefully and as a united body. The past can be a useful teacher. One of its lessons is this: The passage of time can invite confusion and doubt — and both work against courage.
Again: Why does Thomas More still matter? Why does he matter right now?
More's final work, scribbled in the Tower of London and smuggled out before his death, was The Sadness of Christ. In it, he contrasts the focus and energy of Judas with the sleepiness of the Apostles in the Garden of Gethsemane. He then applies the parable to his own day and the abject surrender of England's bishops to the will of Henry VIII: "Does not this contrast between the traitors and the Apostles present to us a clear and sharp mirror image. . .a sad and terrible view of what has happened through the ages from those times to our own? Why do not bishops contemplate in this scene their own somnolence?"
More urges the bishops not to fall asleep "while virtue and the faith are placed in jeopardy." In the face of Tudor bullying, he begs them, "Do not be afraid" — this from a layman on the brink of his own execution.
Of course, that was then. This is now. America 2012 is a very long way, in so many different ways, from England 1535.
But readers might nonetheless profit in the coming months from some reflection on the life of Sir Thomas. We might also take a moment to remember More's friend and fellow martyr, John Fisher, the only bishop who refused to bend to the king's will; the man who shortly before his own arrest told his brother bishops: ". . . the fort has been betrayed even [by] them that should have defended it."
The Most Reverend Charles J. Chaput, O.F.M. Cap. "A Man for This Season, and All Seasons." Public Discourse (December 19, 2012).
This article is reprinted and republished with the explicit permission of the Withersoon Institute. Public Discourse: Ethics, Law, and the Common Good is an online publication of the Witherspoon Institute that seeks to enhance the public understanding of the moral foundations of free societies by making the scholarship of the fellows and affiliated scholars of the Institute available and accessible to a general audience.
The Most Reverend Charles J. Chaput, O.F.M. Cap. is the ninth and current Archbishop of Philadelphia, serving since his installation on September 8, 2011. He previously served as Archbishop of Denver (1997-2011) and Bishop of Rapid City (1988-1997). As member of the Prairie Band Potawatomi Tribe, Archbishop Chaput is the second Native American to be ordained bishop in the United States, and the first Native American archbishop. He is the author of the e-book, A Heart on Fire: Catholic Witness and the Next America, as well as Render Unto Caesar: Serving the Nation by Living our Catholic Beliefs in Political Life, and Living the Catholic Faith: Rediscovering the Basics.
Copyright © 2012 The Public Discourse