PART I - Considerations
The Catholic Medical Association is dedicated to upholding the principles of the Catholic Faith as related to the practice of medicine and to promoting Catholic medical ethics to the medical profession, including mental health professionals, the clergy, and the general public.
No issue has raised more concern in the past decade than that of homosexuality and therefore the CMA offers the following summary and review of the status of the question. This summary relies extensively on the conclusions of various studies and points out the consistency of the teachings of the Church with these studies. It is hoped that this review will also serve as an educational and reference tool for Catholic clergy, physicians, mental health professionals, educators, parents and the general public.
CMA supports the teachings of the Catholic Church as laid out in the revised version of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, in particular the teachings on sexuality: "All the baptized are called to chastity." (CCC, n.2348) "Married people are called to live conjugal chastity; others practice chastity in continence." (CCC, n.2349) "... tradition has always declared that homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered... Under no circumstance can they be approved." (CCC, n.2333)
It is possible, with God's grace, for everyone to live a chaste life including persons experiencing same-sex attraction, as Cardinal George, Archbishop of Chicago, so powerfully stated in his address to the National Association of Catholic Diocesan Lesbian & Gay Ministries: "To deny that the power of God's grace enables those with homosexual attractions to live chastely is to deny, effectively, that Jesus has risen from the dead." (George 1999)
There are certainly circumstances such as psychological disorders and traumatic experiences which can, at times, render this chastity more difficult and there are conditions which can seriously diminish an individual's responsibility for lapses in chastity. These circumstances and conditions, however, do not negate free will or eliminate the power of grace. While many men and women who experience same-sex attractions say that their sexual desire for those of their own sex was experienced as a "given" (Chapman 1987) this in no way implies a genetic predetermination or an unchangeable condition. Some surrendered to same-sex attractions because they were told that they were born with this inclination and that it was impossible to change the pattern of one's sexual attraction. Such persons may feel it is futile and hopeless to resist same-sex desires and embrace a "gay identity". These same persons may then feel oppressed by the fact that society and religion, in particular the Catholic Church, do not accept the expression of these desires in homosexual acts. (Schreier 1998)
The research referenced in this report counters the myth that same-sex attraction is genetically predetermined and unchangeable and offers hope for prevention and treatment.
back to top
1) Not born that way
A number of researchers have sought to find a biological cause for same-sexual attraction. The media has promoted the idea that a "gay gene" has already been discovered (Burr 1996), but in spite of several attempts none of the much publicized studies (Hamer 1993: LeVay 1991) have been scientifically replicated. (Gadd 1998) A number of authors have carefully reviewed these studies and found that they not only do not prove a genetic basis for same-sex attraction, they do not even claim to have scientific evidence for such a claim. (Byrne 1963: Crewdson 1995: Goldberg1992; Horgan 1995: McGuire 1995: Porter 1996; Rice 1999)
If same-sex attraction were genetically determined, then one would expect identical twins to be identical in their sexual attractions. There are, however, numerous reports of identical twins who are not identical in their sexual attractions. (Bailey 1991: Eckert 1986; Friedman 1976; Green 1974; Heston 1968; McConaghy 1980; Rainer 1960; Zuger 1976) Case histories frequently reveal environmental factors which account for the development of different sexual attraction patterns in genetically identical children, supporting the theory that same-sex attraction is a product of the interplay of a variety of environmental factors. (Parker 1964)
There are, however, ongoing attempts to convince the public that same-sex attraction is genetically based. (Marmor 1975) Such attempts may be politically motivated because people are more likely to respond positively to demands for changes in laws and religious teaching when they believe sexual attraction to be genetically determined and unchangeable. (Emulf 1989: Piskur 1992) Others have sought to prove a genetic basis for same-sex attraction so that they could appeal to the courts for rights based on the "immutability". (Green 1988)
Catholics believe that sexuality was designed by God as a sign of the love of Christ, the bridegroom, for his Bride, the Church, and therefore sexual activity is appropriate only in marriage. Healthy psycho-sexual development leads naturally to attraction in persons of each sex for the other sex. Trauma, erroneous education, and sin can cause a deviation from this pattern. Persons should not be identified with their emotional or developmental conflicts as though this was the essence of their identity. In the debate between essentialism and social constructionism, the believer in natural law would hold that human beings have an essential nature — either male or female — and that sinful inclinations — such as the desire to engage in homosexual acts — are constructed and can, therefore, be deconstructed.
It is, therefore, probably wise to avoid wherever possible using the words "homosexual" and "heterosexual" as nouns since such usage implies a fixed state and an equivalence between the natural state of man and woman as created by God and persons experiencing same sex attractions or behaviors.
back to top
2) Same sex attraction as a symptom
Individuals experience same-sex attractions for different reasons. While there are similarities in the patterns of development, each individual has a unique, personal history. In the histories of persons who experience same-sex attraction, one frequently finds one or more of the following:
In some cases, same-sex attraction or activity occurs in a patient with other psychological diagnosis, such as:
back to top
3) Same-sex attraction is preventable
If the emotional and developmental needs of each child are properly met by both family and peers, the development of same-sex attraction is very unlikely. Children need affection, praise and acceptance by each parent, by siblings and by peers. Such social and family situations, however, are not always easily established and the needs of children are not always readily identifiable. Some parents may be struggling with their own trials and be unable to provide the attention and support their children require. Sometimes parents work very hard but the particular personality of the child makes support and nurture more difficult. Some parents saw incipient signs, sought professional assistance and advice and were given inadequate and in some cases erroneous advice.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (APA 1994) of the American Psychiatric Association has defined Gender Identity Disorder (GID) in children as a strong, persistent cross gender identification, a discomfort with one's own sex, and a preference for cross sex roles in play or in fantasies. Some researchers (Friedman 1988, Phillips, 1992) have identified another less pronounced syndrome in boys — chronic feelings of unmasculinity. These boys while not engaging in any cross sex play or fantasies, feel profoundly inadequate in their masculinity and have an almost phobic reaction to rough and tumble play in early childhood and a strong dislike of team sports. Several studies have shown that children with Gender Identity Disorder and boys with chronic juvenile unmasculinity are at-risk for same-sex attraction in adolescence.(Newman 1976; Zucker 1995; Harry 1989)
The early identification (Hadden 1967) and proper professional intervention, if supported by parents, can often overcome the gender identity disorder (Rekers 1974: Newman 1976). Unfortunately, many parents who report these concerns to their pediatricians are told not to worry about them. In some cases, the symptoms and parental concerns may appear to lessen when the child enters the second or third grade, but unless adequately dealt with the symptoms may reappear at puberty as intense, same-sex attraction. This attraction appears to be the result of a failure to identify positively with one's own sex.
It is important that those involved in child care and education become aware of the signs of gender identity disorder and chronic juvenile unmasculinity and access the resources available to find appropriate help for these children. (Bradley 1998; Brown 1963: Acosta 1975) Once convinced that same-sex attraction is not a genetically determined disorder, one is able to hope for prevention and one is also able to hope for a therapeutic model to greatly mitigate if not eliminate same-sex attractions.
back to top
4) At-risk, not predestined
While a number of studies have shown that children who have been sexually abused, children exhibiting the symptoms of GID, and boys with chronic juvenile unmasculinity are at risk for same-sex attractions in adolescence and adulthood, it is important to note that a significant percentage of these children do not become homosexually active as adults. (Green 1985: Bradley 1998)
For some, negative childhood experiences are overcome by later positive interactions. Some make a conscious decision to turn away from temptation. The presence and the power of God's grace, while not always measurable, cannot be discounted as a factor in helping an at-risk individual turn away from same-sex attraction. The labeling of an adolescent, or worse a child, as unchangeably "homosexual" does the individual a grave disservice. Such adolescents or children can, with appropriate, positive intervention, be given proper guidance to deal with early emotional traumas.
back to top
Those promoting the idea that sexual orientation is immutable frequently quote from a published discussion between Dr. C.C. Tripp and Dr. Lawrence Hatterer in which Dr. Tripp stated: "... there is not a single recorded instance of a change in homosexual orientation which has been validated by outside judges or testing. Kinsey wasn't able to find one. And neither Dr. Pomeroy nor I have been able to find such a patient. We would be happy to have one from Dr. Hatterer." (Tripp & Hatterer 1971) They fail to reference Dr. Hatterer response:
"I have 'cured' many homosexuals, Dr. Tripp. Dr. Pomeroy or any other researcher may examine my work because it is all documented on 10 years of tape recordings. Many of these 'cured' (I prefer to use the word 'changed') patients have married, had families and live happy lives. It is a destructive myth that 'once a homosexual, always a homosexual." It has made and will make millions more committed homosexuals. What is more, not only have I but many other reputable psychiatrists (Dr. Samuel B. Hadden, Dr. Lionel Ovesey, Dr. Charles Socarides, Dr. Harold Lief, Dr. Irving Bieber, and others) have reported their successful treatments of the treatable homosexual." (Tripp & Hatterer 1971)
A number of therapists have written extensively on the positive results of therapy for same-sex attraction. Tripp chose to ignore the large body of literature on treatment and surveys of therapists. Reviews of treatment for unwanted same-sex attractions shows that it is as successful as treatment for similar psychological problems: about 30% experience a freedom from symptoms and another 30% experience improvement. (Bieber 1962: Clippinger 1974: Fine 1987: Kaye 1967: MacIntosh 1994: Marmor 1965: Nicolosi 2000: Rogers 1976: Satinover 1996: Throckmorton: West)
Reports from individual therapists have been equally positive. (Barnhouse 1977: Bergler 1962: Bieber 1979: Cappon 1960: Caprio 1954: Ellis 1956: Hadden 1958: Hadden 1967b: Hadfield 1958: Hatterer 1970: Kronemeyer 1989 , Nicolosi 1991) This is only a representative sampling of the therapists who report successful results in the treating of individuals experiencing same-sex attractions.
There are also numerous autobiographical reports from men and women who once believed themselves to be unchangeably bound by same-sex attractions and behaviors. Many of these men and women (Exodus 1990-2000) now describe themselves as free of same-sex attraction, fantasy, and behavior. Most of these individuals found freedom through participation in religion based support groups, although some also had recourse to therapists. Unfortunately, a number of influential persons and professional groups ignore this evidence (APA 1997: Herek 1991) and there seems to be a concerted effort on the part of "homosexual apologists" to deny the effectiveness of treatment of same-sex attraction or claim that such treatment is harmful. Barnhouse expressed wonderment at these efforts: "The distortion of reality inherent in the denials by homosexual apologists that the condition is curable is so immense that one wonders what motivates it."(Barnhouse 1977)
Robert Spitzer, M.D., the renowned Columbia University psychiatric researcher, who was directly involved in the 1973 decision to remove homosexuality from the American Psychiatric Association's list of mental disorders, has recently become involved with research the possibility of change. Dr. Spitzer stated in an interview: "I am convinced that many people have made substantial changes toward becoming heterosexual...I think that's news... I came to this study skeptical. I now claim that these changes can be sustained." (Spitzer 2000).
back to top
6) Goals of therapy
Those who claim that change of sexual orientation is impossible, usually define change as total and permanent freedom from all homosexual behavior, fantasy, or attraction in a person who had previously been homosexual in behavior and attraction. (Tripp 1971) Even when change is defined in this extreme manner the claim is untrue. Numerous studies report cases of total change. (Goetz 1997)
Those who deny the possibility of total change admit that change of behavior is possible (Coleman 1978: Herron 1982) and that persons who have been sexually involved with both sexes appear more able to change.(Acosta 1975) A careful reading of the articles opposing therapy for change reveals that the authors who see therapy for change as unethical (Davison 1982: Gittings 1973) do so because they view the such therapy as oppressive to those who do not want to change (Begelman 1975: 1977: Murphy 1992: Sleek 1997: Smith 1988) and view those persons with same-sex attraction who express a desire to change as victims of societal or religious oppression. (Begelman 1977: Silverstein 1972)
It should be noted that almost without exception, those who regard therapy as unethical, also reject abstinence from non-marital sexual activity as a minimal goal (Barrett 1996) and among the therapists who accept homosexual acts as normal many find nothing wrong with infidelity in committed relationships (Nelson 1982), anonymous sexual encounters, general promiscuity, auto-eroticism (Saghir 1973), sado-masochism, and various paraphilias. Some even support a lessening of restrictions on sex between adults and minors (Mirkin 1999) or deny the negative psychological impact of sexual child abuse. (Rind 1998; Smith 1988)
Some of those who consider therapy unethical also challenge established theories of child development. (Davison 1982: Menvielle 1998) These tend to place blame for the undeniable problems suffered by homosexually active adolescents and adults on societal oppression. All research conclusions must be evaluated in light of the biases which the researchers bring to the project. When research is infused with an acknowledged political agenda, its value is seriously diminished.
It should be pointed out that Catholics cannot support forms of therapy which encourage the patients to replace one form of sexual sin with another. (Schwartz 1984) Some therapists, for example, do not consider a patient "cured" until he can comfortably engage in sexual activity with the other sex, even if the patient is not married. (Masters 1979) Others encouraged patients to masturbate using other-sex imagery. (Blitch 1972; Conrad 1976)
For a Catholic with same sex attraction, the goal of therapy should be freedom to live chastely according to one's state in life. Some of those who have struggled with same-sex attractions believe that they are called to a celibate life. They should not be made to feel that they have failed to achieve freedom, because they do not experience desires for the other sex . Others wish to marry and have children. There is every reason to hope that many will be able, in time, to achieve this goal. They should not, however, be encouraged to rush into marriage, since there is ample evidence that marriage is not a cure for same-sex attractions. With the power of grace, the sacraments, support from the community, and an experienced therapist, a determined individual should be able to achieve the inner freedom promised by Christ.
Experienced therapists can help individuals uncover and understand the root causes of the emotional trauma which gave rise to their same sex attractions and then work in therapy to resolve this pain. Men experiencing same-sex attractions often discover how their masculine identify was negatively effected by feelings of rejection from father or peers or from a poor body image which result in sadness, anger and insecurity. As this emotional pain is healed in therapy, the masculine identity is strengthened and same sex attractions diminish.
Women with same sex attractions can come to see how conflicts with fathers or other significant males led them to mistrust of male love or how lack of maternal affection led to a deep longing for female love. Insight into causes of anger and sadness will hopefully lead to forgiveness and freedom. All this takes time. In this respect individuals suffering from same-sex attraction are no different than the many other men and women who have emotional pain and need to learn how to forgive.
Catholic therapists working with Catholic individuals should feel free to use the wealth of Catholic spirituality in this healing process. Those with father wounds can be encouraged to develop their relationship with God as a loving father. Those who were rejected or ridiculed by peers as youngsters can meditate upon the Jesus as brother, friend, and protector. Those who feel unmothered can turn to Mary for comfort.
There is every reason for hope that with time those who seek freedom will find it, but we must recognize when we encourage hope, there are some who will not achieve their goals. We may find ourselves in the same position as a pediatric oncologist who spoke of how when he first began his practice, there was almost no hope for children stricken with cancer and the physician's duty was to help the parents accept the inevitable and not waste their resources chasing a "cure." Today almost 70% of the children recover, but each death leaves the medical team with terrible feeling of failure. As the prevention and treatment of same-sex attraction improves, the individuals who still struggle will, more than ever, need compassionate and sensitive support.
back to top
PART II - Recommendations
1) Ministry to individuals experiencing same-sex attraction
It is very important for every Catholic experiencing same sex attractions to know that there is hope, and that there is help. Unfortunately, this help is not always readily available in all areas. Support groups, therapists, and spiritual counselors who unequivocally support the Church's teaching are essential components of the help that is needed. Since the notions of sexuality in our country are so varied patients seeking help must be cautious that the group or counselor supports Catholic moral imperatives. One of the better known Catholic support agencies is an organization known as Courage (See Appendix) and its affiliated organization Encourage. While any attempt to teach the sinfulness of illicit homosexual behavior may be greeted with accusations of 'homophobia', the reality is that Christ calls all to chastity in keeping with the particular state of life. The desire of the Church to help all live chastely is not a blanket condemnation of any who find chastity difficult but rather the compassionate response of a Church seeking to imitate Christ, the Good Shepherd.
It is essential that every Catholic experiencing same-sex attractions have easy access to support groups, therapists, and spiritual counselors who unequivocally support the Church's teaching and are prepared to offer the highest quality help. In many areas the only support groups available are run by Evangelical Christians or by people who reject the Church's teaching. The failure of the Catholic community to provide for the needs of this population is a serious omission which must not be allowed to continue. It is particularly tragic that Courage, which under the leadership of Fr. John Harvey has developed an excellent and authentically Catholic network of support groups, is not yet available in every diocese and major city.
Anecdotal reports of individuals or organizations, under Catholic auspices or directly associated with the Catholic Church, counseling persons with same-sex attractions to practice fidelity in same-sex relationships rather than chastity according to their state in life are quite distressing. It is most important that Church related counselors or support groups be very clear about the nature and genesis of same-sex attraction. This condition is not genetically or biologically determined. This condition is not unchangeable. It is deceitful to counsel individuals experiencing same-sex attractions that it is acceptable to engage in sexual acts provided these occur within the context of a faithful relationship. The teachings of the Catholic Church on sexual morality are explicitly clear and do not allow exceptions. Catholics have a right to know the truth and those working with or for Catholic institutions have an obligation to clearly enunciate that truth.
Some clerics, perhaps because they erroneously believe that same-sex attraction is genetically determined and unchangeable, have encouraged individuals experiencing same-sex attractions to identify with the gay community, by publicly proclaiming themselves gay or lesbian, but live chastity in their personal life. There are several reasons why this is an misguided course of action: 1) It is based on the mistaken idea that same-sex attraction is an unchangeable aspect of the individual and discourages persons from seeking help; 2) The "gay" community promotes an ethic of sexual behavior which is totally antithetical to the Catholic teaching on sexuality and has made no secret of its desire to eliminate "erotophobia" and "heterosexism." There is simply no way the position articulated by spokespersons for the "gay" movement and the Catholic church can be reconciled; 3) It puts easily tempted persons into places which must be considered the near occasion of sin.; 4) It creates a false hope that the Church will eventually change its teaching on sexual morality.
Catholics must, of course, reach out to individuals experiencing same-sex attraction, to those actively involved in homosexual acts, and particularly to those suffering from sexually transmitted diseases, with love, hope, and the authentic, uncompromised message of freedom from sin through Jesus Christ.
back to top
2) The role of the priest
It is of paramount importance that priests, when faced with parishioners troubled by same-sex attraction, have access to solid information and genuinely beneficial resources. The priest, however, must do more than simply refer to other agencies (See Courage and Encourage in the Appendix). He is in a unique position to provide specific spiritual assistance to those experiencing same-sex attraction. He must, of course, be very sensitive to the intense feelings of insecurity, guilt, shame, anger, frustration, sadness, and even fear in these individuals. This does not preclude him from speaking very clearly about the teachings of the Church (See CCC, n.2357-2359), the need for forgiveness and healing in Confession, the need to avoid occasions of sin, and the need for a strong prayer life. A number of therapists believe that religious faith plays a crucial part in the recovery from same-sex attraction and sexual addictions.
When an individual confesses same-sex attractions, fantasies, or homosexual acts, the priest should be aware that these are often manifestations of childhood and adolescent traumas, sexual child abuse, or unmet childhood needs for the love and affirmation from the same-sex parent. Unless these underlying problems are addressed, the individual may find the temptations returning and fall into despair. Those who reject the Church's teachings and encourage persons with same-sex attractions to enter into so called "stable, loving homosexual unions" fail to understand that such arrangements will not resolve these underlying problems. While encouraging therapy and support group membership, the priest should remember that through the sacrament, he can help individual penitents deal not only with the sin, but also with causes of same-sex attraction.
The following list, while not exhaustive, illustrates some of the ways in which a priest may help the individuals with these problems who come to the Sacrament of Reconciliation:
a) Persons, experiencing same-sex attraction or confessing sins in this area, almost always carry a burden of deep emotional pain, sadness, and resentment toward those who have rejected, neglected or hurt them, including their parents, peers, and sexual molesters. Helping them to forgive can be the first step in healing.(Fitzgibbons 1999)
b) Individuals experiencing same-sex attractions often report a long history of early sexual experiences and sexual trauma.(Doll 1992) Homosexually active persons are more likely to have engaged in sexual activity with another person at a young age.(Stephan 1973: Bell 1981) Many have never told any one about these experiences (Johnson 1985) and carry tremendous guilt and shame. In some cases, those who were sexually abused feel guilty because they reacted to their trauma by acting out sexually. The priest can delicately inquire about early experiences, assuring these persons that their sins are forgiven, and help them to find freedom through forgiving others.
c) Individuals involved in homosexual activity may also suffer from sexual addiction (Saghir 1973: Beitchman 1991: Goode 1977) Those who engage in homosexual activity are also more likely to have engaged in extreme forms of sexual behavior or to have exchanged sex for money. (Saghir 1973) Addictions are not easy to overcome, frequent recourse to confession can be a first step to freedom. The priest should remind the penitents that even the most extreme sins in these areas can be forgiven, encouraging them to resist despair and to persevere, while at the same time suggesting that support group designed to deal with addiction.
d) Persons with same-sex attractions are often abuse alcohol, prescription drugs and illegal drugs. (Fifield 1977: Saghir 1973) Such abuse may weaken resistance to sexual temptation. The priest may recommend membership in a support group which addresses these problems.
e) Despair and suicidal thoughts are also frequently a part of the life of an individual troubled by same-sex attraction. (Beitchman 1991: Herrell 1999; Fergusson 1999) The priest can assure the penitent that there is every reason to hope that the situation will change and that God loves them and wants them to live a full and happy life. Again, forgiving others can be extremely helpful.
f) Persons experiencing same-sex attraction may suffer from spiritual problems such as envy (Hurst 1980) or self pity. (Van den Aardweg 1969) It is important that the individual experiencing same-sex attractions not be treated as though sexual temptations were their only problem.
g) The overwhelming majority of men and women experiencing same-sex attraction and women report a poor relationship with their fathers (see footnotes 17 to 23). The priest, as a loving and accepting father figure, can through the sacrament begin the work of repairing that damage and facilitating a healing relationship with God the Father. The priest can also encourage devotion to St. Joseph.
The priest needs to be aware of the depth of healing needed by these seriously conflicted persons. He needs to be a source of hope for the despairing, forgiveness for the erring, strength for the weak, encouragement for the faint of heart, sometimes a loving father figure for the wounded. In brief, he must be Jesus for these beloved children of God who find themselves in most difficult situations. He must be pastorally sensitive but he must also be pastorally firm, imitating, as always, the compassionate Jesus who healed and forgave seventy times seven times but always reminded, "Go and do not commit this sin again".
back to top
3) Catholic medical professionals
Pediatricians need to know the symptoms of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) and chronic juvenile unmasculinity. With early identification and intervention, there is every reason to hope that the problem can be successfully resolved. (Zucker 1995: Newman 1976) While the primary reason for treating children is to alleviate their present unhappiness (Newman 1976: Bradley 1998: Bates 1974), treatment of GID and chronic juvenile unmasculinity can prevent the development of same-sex attraction and the problems associated with homosexual activity in adolescence and adult life.
Most parents do not want their child to become involved in homosexual behavior, but parents of children at-risk are often resistant to treatment. (Zucker 1995; Newman 1976) Informing them of estimates that 75% of children exhibiting the symptoms of GID and chronic juvenile unmasculinity will without intervention experience same-sex attraction (Bradley 1998) and letting them know the risks associated with homosexual activity (Garafalo 1998: Osmond1994: Stall 1988b: Rotello 1997; Signorille 1997) may help to overcome their opposition to therapy. Parental cooperation is extremely important if early intervention is to succeed.
Pediatricians should familiarize themselves with the literature on treatment. George Rekers has written a number of books on the subject.(Rekers 1988) Zucker and Bradley provide a comprehensive review of the literature in their book Gender Identity Disorder and Psychosexual Problems in Children and Adolescents,(1995) as well as numerous cases histories and treatment recommendations.
Physicians encountering patients with sexually transmitted diseases acquired through homosexual activity can inform the patients that psychological therapy and support groups are available, and that approximately 30% of motivated patients can achieve a change in orientation. In terms of disease prevention, an additional 30% are able to remain celibate or eliminate high risk behavior. They should also question these patients about drug and alcohol abuse, and recommend treatment when appropriate, since a number of studies have linked infection with STDs to substance abuse. (Mulry 1994)
Even before the AIDS epidemic a study of men who have sex with men found that 63% had contracted a sexually transmitted disease through homosexual activity. (Bell 1978) In spite of all the AIDS education, epidemiologists predict that for the foreseeable future 50% of men who have sex with men will become HIV positive. (Hoover 1991; Morris 1994; Rotello 1997) They are also at risk for syphilis, gonorrhea, hepatitis A, B, C, HPV, and a number of other illness.
Mental health professionals should familiarize themselves with the works of therapists who have successfully treated persons experiencing same-sex attraction. Because same-sex attraction does not arise from a single cause, different individuals may require different types of treatment. Combining therapy with support group membership and spiritual healing is also an option that should be considered.
back to top
4) Teachers in Catholic institutions
Teachers in Catholic institutions have a duty to defend the teachings of the Church on sexual morality, to counter false information on same-sex attraction, and to inform at-risk or homosexually involved adolescents that help is available. They should continue to resist pressure to include condom education in the curriculum to accommodate homosexually active adolescents. Numerous studies have found that such education is ineffective at preventing disease transmission in the at-risk population. (Stall 1988a: Calabrese 1987: Hoover 1991)
"Gay" rights activists have insisted that at-risk adolescents be turned over to support groups which will help them "come out." There is no evidence that participation in such groups prevents the long-term negative consequences associated with homosexual activity. Such groups will definitely not encourage the adolescent to refrain from sin and live chastely according to his state in life. Symptoms of GID and chronic juvenile unmasculinity in boys should be taken seriously. At-risk children do, however, need special help, particularly those who have been victims of sexual child abuse.
Educators also have a duty to stop teasing and ridicule of children who do not conform to gender norms. Resources to educate teachers, lesson plans, and strategies for dealing with teasing need to be created and provided to teachers in Catholic schools, CCD programs, and other institutions.
back to top
5) Catholic families
When Catholic parents discover that their son or daughter is experiencing same-sex attractions or engaged in homosexual activity, they are often devastated. Afraid for the child's health, happiness, and salvation, parents are usually relieved when informed that same-sex attraction is treatable and preventable. They can find support from other parents in Encourage. They also need to be able to share their burden with loving friends and families
Parents should be informed about the symptoms of Gender Identity Disorder and the prevention of gender identity problems, encouraged to take such symptoms seriously and to refer children with gender identity problems to qualified and morally appropriate mental health professionals.
back to top
6) The Catholic community
There was a time in the not too distant past when pregnancy outside of marriage and abortion were taboo topics and attitudes toward the women involved were judgmental and harsh. The legalization of abortion forced the Church to confront this issue and provide an active ministry to women facing an "unwanted" pregnancy and to women experiencing post-abortion trauma. In a few short years the approach of dioceses, individual parishes, and the Catholic faithful has been transformed and today true Christian charity is the norm rather than the exception. In the same way the attitudes toward same-sex attraction can be transformed, provided each Catholic institution does its part.
Those experiencing same-sex attractions, those who are engaging in homosexual behavior, and their families often feel that they are excluded from the loving concern of the Catholic community. Prayer for persons experiencing same-sex attractions and their families offered as part of the intentions during mass is one way to let them know that the community cares for them.
The members of Catholic media need to be informed about same-sex attraction, the teachings of the Church, and resources for prevention and treatment. Pamphlets and other materials, which clearly articulate the Church's teaching and provide information on resources for those with immediate needs in this area, should be developed and distributed from racks already present in many churches.
When a member of the Catholic media, a teacher in a Catholic institution, or a pastor, misstates the Church's teaching or gives the impression that same-sex attraction is genetically determined and unchangeable, the laity can offer information designed to correct these misunderstandings.
back to top
The Catholic Medical Association recognizes the responsibility which a Diocesan Bishop has to oversee the orthodoxy of teaching within his Diocese. This certainly includes clear instruction in the nature and purpose of intimate sexual relations between persons and the sinfulness of inappropriate relations. The CMA looks forward to working with Bishops and priests in assisting in the establishment of appropriate support groups and therapeutic models for those struggling with same-sex attractions. While we see the Courage and Encourage programs as very useful and valuable and actively promote them, we are certain that there are other modes of support and are willing to work with any psychologically, spiritually and morally appropriate program.
back to top
Jeffrey Satinover, MD and Ph.D., has written of his extensive experience with patients experiencing same-sex attraction:
"I have been extraordinarily fortunate to have met many people who have emerged from the gay life. When I see the personal difficulties they have squarely faced, the sheer courage they have displayed not only in facing these difficulties but also in confronting a culture that uses every possible means to deny the validity of their values, goals, and experiences, I truly stand back in wonder... It is these people — former homosexuals and those who are still struggling, all across America and aboard — who stand for me as a model of everything good and possible in a world that takes the human heart, and the God of that heart, seriously. In my various explorations within the worlds of psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and psychiatry, I have simply never before seen such profound healing." (Satinover 1996)
Those who wish to be free from same-sex attractions frequently turn first to the Church. CMA wants to be sure that they find the help and hope they are seeking. There is every reason to hope that every person experiencing same-sex attraction who seeks help from the Church can find freedom from homosexual behavior and many will find much more, but they will come only if they see love in our words and deeds.
If Catholic medical professionals have in the past failed to meet the needs of this patient population, failed to work diligently to develop effective prevention and treatment therapies, or failed to treat patients experiencing these problems with the respect due every person, we ask forgiveness.
The Catholic Medical Association recognizes that health care professionals have a special duty in this area and hopes that this statement will help them to caring out that duty according to the principles of the Catholic Faith.
The research referenced in this report is drawn from a wide variety of sources. In most cases, numerous other sources could have been cited. For those desiring to make an in-depth study of the issues raised, a comprehensive bibliography can be obtained (email@example.com) along with reviews of the relevant literature.
It should also be pointed out that many of the authors cited do not accept the Church's teaching on the intrinsically disordered nature of homosexual acts. No effort has been made to distinguish between those who do and those who don't, since those who favor prevention and treatment and those who support gay-affirming therapy present essentially consistent statistical evidence and case material, differing on the interpretation and relevance of the evidence.
back to top
Bibliography for CMA statement on homosexuality
Acosta, F. (1975) Etiology and treatment of homosexuality: A review. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 4: 9 - 29.
American Psychiatric Association (1997) Fact Sheet: Homosexuality and Bisexuality. Washington DC:APA. Sept.
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV. Washington DC: APA.
Apperson, L., McAdoo, W. (1968) Parental factors in the childhood of homosexuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 73, 3: 201 - 206.
Bailey, J., Miller, J., Willerman, L. (1993) Maternally rated childhood gender nonconformity in homosexuals and heterosexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 22, 5: 461 - 469.
Bailey, J. Pillard, R. (1991) A genetic study of male sexual orientation. Archives of General Psychiatry. 48: 1089 - 1096.
Barnhouse, R. (1977) Homosexuality: A Symbolic Confusion. NY: Seabury Press.
Barrett, R., Barzan, R. (1996) Spiritual experiences of gay men and lesbians. Counseling and Values. 41: 4 - 15.
Bates, J., Skilbeck, W., Smith, K, Bentley, P. (1974) Gender role abnormalities in boys: An analysis of clinical rates. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2, 1: 1 - 17.
Begelman, D. (1977) Homosexuality and the ethics of behavioral intervention. Journal of Homosexuality. 2, 3: 213 - 218.
Begelman, D. (1975) Ethical and legal issues of behavior modification (in Hersen, M., Eisler, R., Miller, P. Progress in Behavior Modification. NY: Academic).
Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Akman, D. (1991) A review of the short-terms effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect. 15: 537 - 556.
Bell, A., Weinberg, M., Hammersmith, S. (1981) Sexual Preference: Its Development in Men and Women: Bloomington IN: Indiana U.P.
Bell, A., Weinberg, M. (1978) Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women. NY: Simon and Schuster.
Bene, E. (1965) On the genesis of male homosexuality: An attempt at clarifying the role of the parents. British Journal of Psychiatry. 111: 803 - 813.
Berger, J. (1994) The psychotherapeutic treatment of male homosexuality. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 48, 2: 251 - 261.
Bergler, E. (1962) Homosexuality: Disease or Way of Life. NY: Collier Books.
Bieber, I., Bieber, T. (1979) Male homosexuality. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 24, 5: 409 - 421.
Bieber, I. (1976) A discussion of "Homosexuality: The ethical challenge." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 44, 2: 163 - 166.
Bieber, I. et al. (1962) Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study of Male Homosexuals. NY: Basic Books.
Bieber, T. (1971) Group therapy with homosexuals. ( In Kaplan, H., Sadock, B. Comprehensive Group Psychotherapy, Wiliams & Wilkins: Baltimore MD).
Blitch, J., Haynes, S. (1972) Multiple behavioral techniques in a case of female homosexuality. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 3: 319 - 322.
Bradley, S., Zucker, K. (1998) Drs. Bradley and Zucker reply. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 37, 3: 244 - 245.
Bradley, S., Zucker, K. (1997) Gender identity disorder: A review of the past 10 Years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Pschiatry. 34, 7: 872 - 880.
Brown, D. (1963). Homosexuality and family dynamics. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. 27: 227 - 232.
Burr, C. (1996) Suppose there is a gay gene...What then?: Why conservatives should embrace the gay gene. The Weekly Standard. Dec. 16.
Bychowski, G. (1954) The structure of homosexual acting out. Psychoanalytic Quarterly. 23: 48 - 61.
Byne, W., Parsons, B. (1993) Human sexual orientation: The biologic theories reappraisal. Archives of General Psychiatry. 50: 229 - 239.
Calabrese, L., Harris, B., Easley, K. (1987) Analysis of variables impacting on safe sexual behavior among homosexual men in the area of low incidence for AIDS. Paper presented at the Third International Conference for AIDS. Washington DC. (in Stall 1988)
Cappon D. (1965) Toward and Understanding of Homosexuality. Englewoord Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Caprio, F. (1954) Female Homosexuality: A Psychodynamic Study of Lesbianism. NY: Citadel.
Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC)
Chapman, B., Brannock, J. (1987) Proposed model of lesbian identity development: An empirical examination. Journal of Homosexuality. 14: 69 - 80.
Clippinger, J. (1974) Homosexuality can be cured. Corrective and Social Psychiatry and Journal of Behavior Technology Methods and Therapy. 21, 2: 15 - 28
Coleman, E. (1978) Toward a new model of treatment of homosexuality: A review. Journal of Homosexuality. 3, 4: 345 - 357.
Conrad, S., Wincze, J. (1976) Orgasmic reconditioning: A controlled study of its effects upon the sexual arousal and behavior of adult male homosexuals. Behavior Therapy. 7: 155 -166.
Crewdson, J. (1995) Study on 'gay gene' challenged. Chicago Tribune. June 25.
Davison, G. (1982) Politics, ethics and therapy for homosexuality. (in Paul, W., Weinrich, J., Gonsiorek, J., Hotredt, M., Homosexuality: Social, Psychological and Biological Issues. (Berverly Hills CA: Sage) 89 - 96.
Doll, L., Joy, D., Batholow, B., Harrison, J., Bolan, G., Douglas, J., Saltzman, L., Moss, P., Delgado, W. (1992) Self-reported childhood and adolescent sexual abuse among adult homosexual and bisexual men. Child Abuse & Neglect. 18: 825 - 864.
de Beauvoir, S. (1953) The Second Sex. NY: Knopf: .
Eckert, E., Bouchard, T., Bohlen, J., Heston, L. (1986) Homosexuality in monozygotic twins reared apart. British Journal of Psychiatry. 148: 421 - 425.
Eisenbud, R. (1982) Early and later determinants of lesbian choice. Psychoanalytic Review. 69, 1: 85 - 109
Ellis, A. (1956) The effectiveness of psychotherapy with individuals who have severe homosexual problems. Journal of Consulting Psychology. 20, 3: 191 - 195.
Engel, B. (1982) The Right to Innocence. Los Angeles: Jeremy Tarcher.
Ernulf, K., Innala, S., Whitam, F. (1989) Biological explanation, psychological explanation, and tolerance of homosexual: A cross-national analysis of beliefs and attitudes. Psychological Reports. 65: 1003 - 1010.
Exodus North America (1990-2000) Update. Exodus: Seattle WA.
Fergusson, D., Horwood, L., Beautrais, A. (1999) Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people?" Archives of General Psychiatry. 56, 10: 876 -888.
Fifield, L., Latham, J., Phillips, C. (1977) Alcoholism in the Gay Community: The Price of Alienation, Isolation and Oppression, A Project of the Gay Community Service Center, Los Angeles, CA.
Fine, R. (1987) Psychoanalytic theory. (in Diamant L. Male and Female Homosexuality: Psychological Approaches. Washington: Hemisphere Publishing.) 81 - 95.
Finkelhor, D. et al. (1986) A Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse. Newbury Park CA: Sage.
Finkelhor, D (1984) Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. NY: The Free Press.
Fisher, S., Greenberg, R. (1996) Freud Scientifically Reappraisal. NY: Wiley & Sons.
Fitzgibbons, R. (1999) The origins and therapy of same-sex attraction disorder. (in Wolfe, C. Homosexuality and American Public Life. Spense) 85 - 97.
Friedman, R. Stern, L. (1980) Juvenile aggressivity and sissiness in homosexual and heterosexual males. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis. 8, 3: 427 - 440.
Friedman, R., Wollesen, F., Tendler, R. (1976) Psychological development and blood levels of sex steroids in male identical twins of divergent sexual orientation. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 163, 4: 282 - 288.
Friedman, R. (1988) Male Homosexuality: A Contemporary Psychoanalytic Perspective. New Haven: Yale U. Press.
Gadd, J. (1998) New study fails to find so-called 'gay gene'. Toronto Globe and Mail. June 2.
Garofalo, R., Wolf, R., Kessel, S., Palfrey, J., DuRant, R., (1998) The association between health risk behaviors and sexual orientation among a school-based sample of adolescents: Youth risk behavior survey. Pediatrics. 101, 5: 895 - 903.
George, Cardinal (1999) Address to National Association of Catholic Diocesan Lesbian & Gay Ministries, Chicago, IL LifeSite Daily News: October 26.
Gittings, B. (1973) Gay, Proud, Healthy. Philadelphia PA: Gay Activists Alliance.
Goetze, R. (1997) Homosexuality and the Possibility of Change: A Review of 17 Published Studies. Toronto Canada: New Directions for Life.
Goldberg, S. (1992) What is normal?: If something is heritable, can it be called abnormal? But is homosexuality heritable. National Review. Feb. 3. 36 - 38.
Golwyn, D., Sevlie, C. (1993) Adventitious change in homosexual behavior during treatment of social phobia with phenelzine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 54, 1: 39 - 40.
Gonsiorek, J. (1982) The use of diagnostic concepts in working with gay and lesbian populations. (in Homosexuality and Psychotherapy. NY: Haworth) 9 - 20.
Goode, E., Haber, L. (1977) Sexual correlates of homosexual experience: An exploratory study of college women. Journal of Sex Research. 13, 1: 12 - 21
Green, R. Newman, L., Stoller, R. (1972) Treatment of boyhood "transsexualism," Archives of General Psychiatry. 26: 213 - 217 (in Zucker 1975)
Green, R. (1974) Sexual Identity Conflict in Children and Adults. Baltimore: Penguin.
Green, R. (1985) Gender identity in childhood and later sexual orientation: Follow-up of 78 males. American Journal of Psychiatry. 142, 3: 339 - 441.
Green, R. (1988) The immutability of (homo) sexual orientation: Behavioral science implications for a constitutional analysis. Journal of Psychiatry and Law. 16, 4: 537 - 575.
Gundlach, R., Riess, B. (1967) Birth order and sex of siblings in a sample of lesbians and non-lesbians. Psychological Reports. 20:61 - 62.
Hadden, S. (1967a) Male homosexuality. Pennsylvania Medicine. Feb.: 78 - 80
Hadden, S. (1967b) A way out for homosexuals. Harper's Magazine. March: 107 - 120.
Hadden, S. (1958)Treatment of homosexuality by individual and group psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry. March. 810 - 815.
Hadfield, J. (1958) The cure of homosexuality. British Medical Journal. 1: 1323 - 1326.
Hamer, D., Hu, S., Magnuson, V., Hu, A., Pattatucci, A. (1993) A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation. Science. 261: 321 - 327.
Harry, J. (1989) Parental physical abuse and sexual orientation in males. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 18, 3: 251 - 261.
Hatterer, L. (1970) Changing Homosexuality in the Male. NY: McGraw-Hill.
Herek, G. (1991) Myths about sexual orientation: A lawyer's guide to social science research. Law & Sexuality. 1: 133 - 172.
Herrell, R.,Goldberg, J., True, W., Ramakrishnan, V., Lyons, M., Eisen, S., Tsuang, M. (1999) A co-twin control study in adult Men: Sexual orientation and suicidality. Archives of General Psychiatry. 56, 10: 867 - 874.
Herron, W., Kinter, T., Sollinger, I., Trubowitz, J. (1982) Psychoanalytic psychotherapy for homosexual clients: New concepts. (in Gonsiorek, J. Homosexuality and Psychotherapy. NY: Haworth)
Heston, L., Shield, J. (1968) Homosexuality in twins. Archives of General Psychiatry. 18: 149 - 160.
Hockenberry, S., Billingham, R. (1987) Sexual orientation and boyhood gender conformity: Development of the boyhood gender conformity scales (BGCS) Archives of Sexual Behavior. 16, 6: 475 - 492.
Hoover, D., Munoz, A., Carey, V., Chmiel, J., Taylor, J., Margolick, J., Kingsley, L., Vermund, S. (1991) Estimating the 1978 - 1990 and future spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in subgroups of homosexual men. American Journal of Epidemiology. 134, 10: 1190 - 1205.
Horgan, J. (1995) Gay genes, revisited: Doubts arise over research on the biology of homosexuality. Scientific American. Nov. : 28.
Hurst, E. (1980) Homosexuality: Laying the Axe to the Roots. Minneapolis MN: Outpost.
Isay, R., Friedman, R. (1989) Toward a further understanding of Homosexual Men. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association: Scientific Proceedings. 193 - 206.
Johnson, R., Shrier, D. (1985) Sexual victimization of boys: Experience at an adolescent medicine clinic. Journal of Adolescent Health Care. 6: 372 - 376.
Kaplan, E. (1967) Homosexuality: A search for the ego-ideal. Archives of General Psychology. 16: 355 - 358.
Kaye, H., Beri, S., Clare, J., Eleston, M., Gershwin, B., Gershwin, P., Kogan, L., Torda, C., Wilber, C.(1967) Homosexuality in Women. Archives of General Psychiatry. 17: 626 - 634.
Kronemeyer, R. (1980) Overcoming Homosexuality. NY: Macmillian
LeVay, S. (1991) A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men. Science. 258: 1034 - 1037.
MacIntosh, H. (1994) Attitudes and experiences of psychoanalysts. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 42, 4: 1183 - 1207.
Mallen, C. (1983) Sex role stereotypes, gender identity and parental relationships in male homosexuals and heterosexuals. Homosexuality and Social Sex Roles. 7: 55 - 73.
Marmor, J. (1965) Sexual Inversion: The Multiple Roots of Homosexualty. NY: Basic
Marmor, J. (1975)Homosexuality and Sexual Orientation Disturbances. (In Freedman, A., Kaplan, H., Sadock, B. Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry: II, Second Edition. Baltimore MD:Wilaims & Wilkins)
Master, W., Johnson, V. (1979) Homosexuality in Perspective. Boston: Little Brown, Co.
McConaghy, (1980) A pair of monozygotic twins discordant for homosexuality: Sex-dimorphic behavior and penile volume responses. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 9: 123 - 131.
McGuire, T. (1995) Is homosexuality genetic? A critical review and some suggestions. Journal of Homosexuality. 28, 1/2: 115 - 145.
Menvielle, E. (1998) Gender identity disorder (Letter to the editor in response to Bradley and Zucker article). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 37, 3: 243 -244
Mirkin, H. (1999) The pattern of sexual politics: Feminism, homosexuality, and pedophilia. Journal of Homosexuality. 37, 2: 1 -24.
Morris, M., Dean, L. (1994) Effects of sexual behavior change on long-term human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among homosexual men. American Journal of Epidemiology. 140, 3: 217 - 232.
Mulry, G., Kalichman, S., Kelly, J. (1994) "Substance use and unsafe sex among gay men: Global versus situational use of substances. Journal of Sex Educators and Therapy. 20, 3: 175 - 184.
Murphy, T. (1992) Redirecting sexual orientation: Techniques and justifications. Journal of Sex Research. 29: 501- 523.
Nelson, J. (1982) Religious and moral issues in working with homosexual clients.(in Gonsiorek, J. Homosexuality and Psychotherapy. NY: Haworth) 163 - 175.
Newman, L. (1976) Treatment for the parents of feminine boys. American Journal of Psychiatry. 133, 6: 683 - 687.
Nicolosi, J., Byrd, A., Potts, R. (2000) Beliefs and practices of therapists who practice sexual reorientation psychotherapy. Pyschological Reports. 86: 689 - 702.
Nicolosi, J. (1991) Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality. Northvale NJ: Aronson.
Osmond, D., Page, K., Wiley, J., Garrett, K., Sheppard, H., Moss, A., Schrager, K., Winkelstein, W. (1994) HIV infection in homosexual and bisexual men 18 to 29 years of age: The San Francisco young men's health study. American Journal of Public Health. 84, 12: 1933 - 1937.
Parker, N. (1964) Homosexuality in twins: A report on three discordant pairs. British Journal of Psychiatry. 110: 489 - 492.
Parris, J., Zweig-Frank, H., Guzder, J. (1995) Psychological factors associated with homosexuality in males with borderline personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders. 9, 11: 56 - 61
Phillips, G., Over, R. (1992) Adult sexual orientation in relation to memories of childhood gender conforming and gender nonconforming behaviors. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 21, 6: 543 - 558.
Pillard, R. (1988) Sexual orientation and mental disorder. Psychiatric Annals. 18, 1: 52 - 56.
Piskur, J., Degelman, D. (1992) Effect of reading a summary of research about biological bases of homosexual orientation on attitudes toward homosexuals. Psychological Reports. 71: 1219 -1225.
Porter, R. (1996) Born that Way: A review of Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality by Simon LeVay and A Separate Creation by Chandler Burr. New York Times Book Review. August 11.
Rainer, J. et al. (1960) Homosexuality and heterosexuality in identical twins. Psychosomatic Medicine. 22: 251 - 259.
Rekers, G., Lovaas, O., Low, B. (1974) Behavioral treatment of deviant sex role behaviors in a male child. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis. 7: 134 - 151 (in Newman 1976).
Rekers, G. (1988) The formation of homosexual orientation. (In Fagan, P. Hope for Homosexuality. Washington DC: Free Congress Foundation.)
Rice, G., Anderson, C., Risch, N., Ebers, G. (1999) Male homosexuality: Absence of linkage to microsatellite markers at Xq28. Science. April.
Rind, B., Bauserman, R., Tromovitch, P. (1998) A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples. Psychological Bulletin. 124, 1: 22 -53
Rogers, C., Roback, H., McKee, E., Calhoun, D. (1976) Group psychotherapy with homosexuals: A review. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy. 31, 3: 3 - 27
Rotello, G. (1997). Sexual Ecology: AIDS and the Destiny of Gay Men. NY: Dutton.
Saghir, M., Robins, E. (1973) Male and Female Homosexuality: A Comprehensive Investigation. Baltimore MD: Williams & Wilkins.
Satinover, J. (1996) Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth. Grand Rapids MI: Baker.
Schreier, B. (1998) Of shoes, and ships, and sealing wax: The faulty and specious assumptions of sexual reorientation therapies. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. 20, 4: 305 - 314.
Schwartz, M., Masters, W. (1984) The Masters and Johnson treatment program for dissatisfied homosexual men. American Journal of Psychiatry. 141: 173 - 181.
Signorile, M. (1997) Life Outside: The Signorile Report on Gay Men: Sex, Drugs, Muscles, and the Passages of Life. NY: Harper Collins.
Silverstein, C. (1972) Behavior Modification and the Gay community. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy. NY. Oct.(quoted by Davison 1982)
Sipova, I., Brzek, A. (1983) Parental and interpersonal relationships of transsexual and masculine and feminine homosexual men. (in Homosexuals and Social Roles. NY: Haworth). 75 - 85.
Sleek, S. (1997) Concerns about conversion therapy. APA Monitor. October. 28:16
Smith, J.(1988) Psychopathology, homosexuality, and homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality. 15, 1/2: 59 - 74:
Snortum, J., Gillespie, J., Marshall, J., McLaughin, J., Mosberg, L. (1969) Family dynamics and homosexuality. Psychological Reports. 24: 763 - 770.
Spitzer, R. (2000) quoted from the transcript of Dr. Laura Schlessinger's Radio Show, January 21. (reprinted in NARTH Bulletin. 8, 1:26 - 27.
Stall, R., Coates, T., Hoff, C. (1988a) Behavioral risk reduction for HIV infection among gay and bisexual men. American Psychologist. 43, 11: 878 - 885.
Stall, R., Wiley, J. (1988b) A comparison of alcohol and drug use patterns of homosexual and heterosexual men: The San Francisco Men's Health Study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 22: 63 - 73.
Stephan, W. (1973) Parental relationships and early social experiences of activist male homosexuals and male heterosexuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 82, 3: 506 - 513.
Stoller, R. (1978) Boyhood gender aberrations: Treatment issues. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 26: 541 - 558 (in Zucker 1995)..
Thompson, N. Schwartz, D., McCandles, B., Edwards, D. (1973) Parent-child relationships and sexual identity in male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 41, 1: 120 - 127.
Throckmorton, W. (1996) Efforts to modify sexual orientation: A review of outcome literature and ethical issues. Journal of Mental Health and Counseling. 20, 4: 283 - 305.
Tripp, C. Hatterer, L. (1971) Can homosexuals change with Psychotherapy? Sexual Behavior. 1, 4: 42 - 49.
van den Aardweg, G. (1967) Homophilia, Neurosis and the Compulsion to Complain. Amsterdam: Polak, van Gennep.
West, D. (1977) Homosexuality Re-examined. London: Duckworth
Whitam, F. (1977) Childhood indicators of male homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 6, 2: 89 - 96.
Wolpe, J. (1969) The Practice of Behavior Therapy. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon
Zubenko, G., George, A., Soloff, P., Schulz, P. (1987) Sexual practices among patients with borderline personality disorder. American Journal Psychiatry.144, 6: 748 - 752.
Zucker, K., Bradley, S. (1995) Gender Identity Disorder and Psychosexual Problems in Children and Adolescents. NY: Guilford.
Zuger, B. (1976) Monozygotic twins discordant for homosexuality: Report of a pair and significance of the phenomenon. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 17: 661 - 669.
back to top
Courage and Encourage
St. John the Baptist Church and Friary
210 West 31st Street
New York, NY 10001
Catholic Medical Association. "Homosexuality and Hope" CMA (November 2000).
Reprinted with permission of the Catholic Medical Association.
This task force was composed of psychiatrists and other physicians, psychologists, nurse specialists and members of the Catholic Clergy who were engaged in the management and care of homosexual persons. It was headed by Dr. Eugene Diamond, associate professor of Loyola University School Of Medicine, and Richard Fitzgibbons, M.D., a Philadelphia psychiatrist.
The Catholic Medical Association is a national organization of Catholic physicians founded in 1932. With national and local members in all 50 states, Canada, Mexico and South America, the purpose of the CMA is to uphold the principles of the Catholic Faith in the practice of medicine. The Official Journal of the Catholic Medical Association is the Linacre Quarterly, a journal on bioethics published continuously since 1932. . Interested readers can learn more about this organization online at cathmed.org.
Copyright © 2000 Catholic Medical Association