The Metaphysics of Man and BroccoliDENNIS BUONAFEDE
I thought to myself, how would I explain the concept of metaphysics to someone who is rich in lived experience but not well versed in philosophical terminology?
"I have taken more out of philosophy than any other class this year not only because it helps prep for university, but also gave me a lot to think about in the way I live my life. One of my favorite aspects of this course was Metaphysics, as it opened my eyes to many possible answers to life's burning questions, which in turn sparked some heated debates among my friends and I. Also, it has helped me to rethink my own personal beliefs in religion and human nature which in the past, I haven't given enough thought to." [Gr. 12 Philosophy Student – June 2009]His Holiness, Pope Benedict XVI, mentions the word metaphysics five times in his encyclical Caritas in Veritate (Charity in Truth). In Section 53 he writes, "A metaphysical understanding of the relations between persons is therefore of great benefit for their development."
If I were to read this quote to my mother, an Italian immigrant with only a Gr. 5 education, she would put her hands together as if in prayer, shake them up and down and say in Italian, "Ma che cosa e questa 'metaphysics'?" (But what is this 'metaphysics'?) Those of you who have parents from the Old Country are probably smiling to yourselves because you know exactly what I'm talking about.
So I thought to myself, how would I explain the concept of metaphysics to someone who is rich in lived experience but not well versed in philosophical terminology? Being first generation Canadian-Italian I figured the best way to approach it is through food because, let's face it, everyone understands food and Italians understand it more than most!
In my last article I spoke of universals and that they had real objectivity (real meaning) in themselves as concepts. Therefore I can say that I know PASTA – not just fettuccini or linguini, spaghetti or spaghettini and all the ways to make and serve it – but I "KNOW" pasta itself. I can't put my finger on it, but it is a part of me. This is what our intellect does. From all the different experiences I have with this particular pasta or that particular pasta, I grasp the "Essence" of pasta. It's what gives truth to the Italian chef's confident claim: "Mama Mia, do I know pasta!!"
Metaphysics, then, is the study of what the consequences are of this ability to "know" things in themselves, their unchanging nature, separate from their particular attributes like size, shape, texture, quantity, etc. These 'consequences' are called, in philosophese – The First Principles of Being and Knowledge.
Don't let the language throw you off though. Every six year old knows this intuitively!!! I'll use the following dialogue to demonstrate. Those of you with children will immediately understand.
This little scene is a very common, everyday occurrence, played out in kitchens all over the world: only the names of the vegetables change. When we look beyond the scene, beyond the physical, we discover several meta-physical principles that hold reality together.
Principle of Contradiction
The first principle is the Principle of Contradiction. The little girl sees the pot and knows something is in it because Mom is cooking, steam is coming out of the pot and that's what pots are for. "Whatever exists, cannot at the same time not be anything." The pot cannot "be" and "not be" at the same time; and if it's a pot then it can't be a cat at the same time, either. The child doesn't play skeptical mind games about these things: children take reality at face value.
Principal of Sufficient Reason
The second principle is the Principle of Sufficient Reason. The little girl intuitively knows that if there's a pot then there's a reason for that pot being there. Or as Peter Kreeft writes, "Nothing just is without a reason why it is. Everything that is has some adequate or sufficient reason why it is. (Fundamentals of the Faith)" This principle raises the following questions: Why does this thing exist this way? How does it come to happen this way? How does it come to happen at all? Why is it here? What does it exist for?" Notice these questions apply to everything that exists. The little girl knows why the pot exists – and has no problem with it: what she questions is why broccoli has to exist! Since everything has to have a Sufficient Reason for existing the mother can answer her question with: "because it's good for you". This principle introduces the concept of causality, which we'll treat a bit later.
The third principle is the Principle of Substance. Notice the little girl says "I wish broccoli didn't taste so bad." This is because the intellect automatically makes a distinction between the thing itself (broccoli) and its attributes (taste). This applies to everything that exists. I am the same person I was when I was conceived (substance) but many of my attributes have changed: I'm bigger, more educated, bald(er), older, wiser (cough!), etc.
This principle has ENORMOUS consequences when it comes to the Eucharist. This principle explains how God can change the SUBSTANCE of bread while keeping the same ATTRIBUTES (taste, texture, molecular structure, etc). We call this change Transubstantiation – the change of substance from bread to the body, blood, soul, and divinity of Christ. Understanding this metaphysical principle allows us to better understand our faith!
Principle of Causality
The fourth principle is the Principle of Causality. The little girl asks "Why didn't God make broccoli taste like chocolate." She knows that someone had to have created broccoli the way it is. Today many would say that broccoli is just the result of evolution, but that doesn't answer the question of why anything exists at all. The intellect, unless it is deliberately misled, will automatically work its way back to the First Cause – the Designer; the Creator.
The fifth principle is the Principle of Finality. This principle allows the mother to respond "I'm sure God has His reasons, dear" and it allows the little girl to accept this because every intelligent creature has a reason for doing what it does. Everything (that exists) exists for a reason; a purpose; a final end. This truth is comforting to young people: they have a purpose in life not because faith tells us so, but because it is written in the very fabric of reality. Faith makes clear what reason intuitively understands.
Principle of Practical Reason
And lastly, we have the Principle of Practical Reason or of the Moral Order. The little girl asks: "Mommy, do I really have to eat broccoli?" The human intellect, alone among all the animals, intuitively knows that there is a proper response to reality and the nature of things. The intellect knows that "good is to be done and pursued, and evil is to be avoided." The more we understand the principles listed above, the more we understand the moral order written into the very fabric of reality. When we eventually look at Natural Law, this will be made clearer.
Now, our little girl doesn't consciously know or understand all these Principles that we discover when we examine Metaphysics, but her intellect, her 'common sense', does. This reality gives even greater insight to why Jesus said "unless you become like a little child…"
Here is where we leave broccoli behind and enter into the realm of humanity. I've only brushed the surface of Metaphysics but these First Principles form the framework for good, practical and universal philosophical reflection. We can now begin to answer the important questions in life in a way that has universal application because we're dealing with "one" reality, a reality that has definitive underlying Principles that give order and structure to reality. In short, these Principles are the answer to the Dictatorship of Relativism because reality is recognized as objective, not just a personal or social construct.
Which brings us back to Pope Benedict's quote that we began with: "A metaphysical understanding of the relations between persons is therefore of great benefit for their development." Since human persons share a common humanity (essence or nature) then the First Principles mentioned above, when reflected and acted on, allow us to order our personal lives and society according to what is objectively true, good and just. We could rewrite Pope Benedict's quote as follows: "An understanding of the relations between persons, based on First Principles, is therefore of great benefit for their (persons') development." If we are to develop as human beings we need to know what should guide that development.
To conclude I'll leave it to Msgr. Kevane and Dr. Chervin to summarize the importance of Metaphysics.
 Chervin, Ronda, Ph.D. & Kevane, Msgr. Eugene, Ph.D; "Love of Wisdom: An Introduction to Christian Philosophy"; Ignatius Press, San Francisco, 1988; p132. The principles that follow can be found in pages 130-136.
(Msgr. Kevane was THE most influential professor I ever studied under. He taught at Holy Apostles when I was there. He was a man of great holiness, intelligence and humility, very similar in approach to Fr. Hardon, S.J.. May Perpetual Light shine upon them both.)
Dennis Buonafede. "The Metaphysics of Man and Broccoli." The Integrated Catholic Life (March 25, 2011).
Reprinted with permission of the author and The Integrated Catholic Life.
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Dennis Buonafede has been teaching High School Religion and Philosophy in Ontario, Canada for the past 10 years. Dennis completed his B.A. in Philosophy at St. Peter's Seminary at the University of Western Ontario, his M.Div. as a lay student at St. Augustine’s Seminary at the University of Toronto and his Bachelor of Education degree at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Prior to transferring to St. Augustine's, he studied at Holy Apostles Seminary in Connecticut from 1990-1992. Dennis has been married to Teresa for 15 years and they have two children aged 12 and 14. Dennis co-developed a leadership program for the K of C sponsored Ontario Catholic Youth Leadership Camp and was the camp director for 3 years. He is currently a Civilian Instructor with Air Cadet 242 Squadron where his son is a Sergeant.
Dennis is a voracious reader, likes to ride motorcycles and enjoys fishing. He follows hockey (Toronto Maple Leafs), football (Chicago Bears) and NASCAR (Dale Jr.). His family agrees that he makes THE best home made pizza ever!
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