Were the Middle Ages Dark? 

ANTHONY ESOLEN

No period of history is more misunderstood or under-appreciated than the Middle Ages, the ten centuries from the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century to the start of the Renaissance in the fifteenth.

This is especially true between the year 1000, when global warming brought grapes to England and grain to the coast of Greenland, doubling the population and reviving town life all across Europe, and 1348, after the warming had ended and the black death arrived from the East.

Let's take a close look at these years.  We'll make a good start by dispelling some nonsense.  The people of the Middle Ages did not believe the earth was flat.  They knew it was round:  the ancients said it was round; the Fathers of the Church said it was round.  They saw its shadow during an eclipse of the moon, and the shadow was round.  They saw masts of ships sinking below the horizon.  Round.

More nonsense:  the Middle Ages were cheerless.  Quite the reverse.  They were full of colour.  Of celebrations involving everybody in town.  They invented the carnival.  They revived popular drama, which had lain dormant for a thousand years.  Whatever they did, whether it was sinning or fighting or repenting or falling in love, or traveling thousands of miles to Rome or to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, they did it with energy and gusto.

What do we owe to the Middle Ages?  How about the university?  Medieval man invented it.  For the first time in the history of the world, you could go to Paris or Bologna or Padua or Oxford or Prague or Cologne and study under masters of law, medicine, philosophy and theology, and your degree designating you as a Master or a Doctor would hold good anywhere in Europe.  It was an international community of scholars.  A young Thomas Aquinas, born in southern Italy at the beginning of the thirteenth century, would travel to Cologne to study philosophy under the philosopher-biologist Albert the Great, then to Paris, where he taught theology and philosophy, then to Rome, and back to France.  And this sort of thing was the rule among scholars, not the exception.


How about modern science?  Thomas's teacher Albert was a biologist.  Why should that surprise us?  Medieval man believed that God made the world as an ordered whole.  They learned it both from Scripture and from pagan thinkers such as Aristotle.  Science did not burst on the scene with Galileo.  Copernicus died in the sixteenth century, but he was a priest-astronomer at a Polish university founded in the Middle Ages.  He wasn't even the first man to suggest that the earth orbited the sun.  Others had ventured the suggestion.  Most prominent was the late-medieval Nicholas of Cusa, a philosopher and a cardinal in the Church.

How about architecture?  If the Middle Ages were dark and ignorant, how come ordinary people — masons, carpenters, painters, sculptors, glazers — erected the most beautiful and majestic buildings to grace the earth:  the gothic cathedrals.  Without power tools — with pulleys and winches and scaffolding and their bare hands — they built up lacework in stone and glass, flooding vast interior spaces with colour and light.  We have nothing to match their complexity and beauty.

Far from the Dark Ages, which it is popularly called, the Middle Ages might better be described as The Brilliant Ages.

And art?  Studying the ancients, medieval man produced whole genres of art that the world had never seen.  There had never been anything like Dante's Divine Comedy, or Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, or the Arthurian legends of Chrétien de Troyes, or the paintings of Giotto, or the astonishingly beautiful and precise work of the illuminators of manuscripts.

What else do we owe to them?  Western music.  They invented our musical notation, and Western harmony, not to mention the humble carols we enjoy at Christmastime.  A tradition of local self-government.  Witness the chartered towns all over Europe.  Free associations of men united for the common good.  Friars, guildsmen, members of lay orders devoted to good works.  People who established schools, orphanages and hospitals.

Far from the Dark Ages, which it is popularly called, the Middle Ages might better be described as The Brilliant Ages.  A startling epic of progress, from science to art, from philosophy to medicine.  Indeed, in one crucial way we are less civilized than those who enhanced human existence over a thousand years ago:  we dismiss the achievements of our ancestors and fall short of them.  They honoured their ancestors, and surpassed them.

I'm Anthony Esolen of Providence College, for Prager University.

 

Were the Middle Ages Dark? by Anthony Esolen

 

 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Anthony Esolen. "Were the Middle Ages Dark?" Prager University (June, 2013).

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THE AUTHOR

Anthony Esolen is a professor of English at Providence College, where his classes are featured in the college's Western Civilization Core Curriculum. He is the author of Ten Ways to Destroy the Imagination of Your Child, Ironies of Faith: Laughter at the Heart of Christian Literature, The Politically Incorrect Guide to Western Civilization, and is the translator of several epic poems of the West, including Lucretius' On the Nature of Things: de Rerum Natura, Tasso's Gerusalemme liberata, and the three volumes of Dante's Divine Comedy: Inferno, Purgatory, and Paradise. Anthony Esolen has published many scholarly articles and essays, including several on Renaissance literature. A graduate of Princeton and the University of North Carolina, Esolen is proficient in Latin, Italian, Anglo-Saxon, French, German and Greek. He lives in Rhode Island with his wife Debra and their two children. Anthony Esolen is a member of the advisory board of the Catholic Education Resource Center.

Copyright © 2013 Prager University




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