May 13 is the optional memorial of Our Lady of Fatima. Fatima is the most prominent approved apparition of the 20th century.
Here are 9 things to know and share with friends.
A young shepherd girl, Lucia dos Santos, said that she experienced supernatural visitations as early as 1915, two years before the famous appearances of the Virgin Mary.
In 1917, she and two of her cousins, Francisco and Jacinta Marto, were working as shepherds tending their families' flocks. On May 13, 1917, the three children saw an apparition of Our Lady. She told them, among other things, that she would return once a month for six months.
At Our Lady's third appearance, on July 13, Lucia was shown the secret of Fatima. She reportedly turned pale and cried out with fear, calling Our Lady by name. There was a thunderclap, and the vision ended.
The children again saw the Virgin on September 13.
In the sixth and final appearance, on October 13, a dramatic outward sign was given to those gathered to witness the event. After the clouds of a rainstorm parted, numerous witnesses — some as far as 40 miles away — reported seeing the sun dance, spin, and send out colored rays of light.
As World War I raged across Europe, an epidemic of Spanish flu swept the globe. It erupted in America and was spread by soldiers being sent to distant lands. This epidemic killed an estimated twenty million people.
Among them were Franciso and Jacinta, who contracted the illness in 1918 and died in 1919 and 1920, respectively. Lucia entered the convent.
On June 13, 1929, at the convent chapel in Tuy, Spain, Lucia had another mystical experience in which she saw the Trinity and the Blessed Virgin. Mary told her:
On October 13, 1930, the bishop of Leiria (now Leiria-Fatima) proclaimed the apparitions at Fatima authentic and worthy of assent.
'Between 1935 and 1941, on the orders of her superiors, Sr. Lucia wrote four memoirs of the Fatima events.
'In the third of these, she recorded the first two parts of the secret, explaining that there was a third part she was not yet permitted by heaven to reveal.
'In the Fourth Memoir', she added a sentence to the end of the second part of the secret:
'This sentence has been the basis for much speculation that the third part of the secret concerned a great apostasy.
'Sr. Lucia also noted that in writing the secret in the Fourth Memoir':
Upon the publication of the Third and Fourth Memoirs, the world became aware of the secret of Fatima and its three parts, including Our Lady's request that Russia be consecrated (entrusted) to her Immaculate Heart by the pope and the bishops of the world.
On October 31, 1942, Pius XII consecrated not only Russia but the whole world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. What was missing, though, was the involvement of the world's bishops.
In 1943, the bishop of Leiria ordered Sr. Lucia to put the third secret of Fatima in writing. She did not feel at liberty to do so until 1944. It was then placed in a wax-sealed envelope on which Sr. Lucia wrote that it should not be opened until 1960.
'The secret remained with the bishop of Leiria until 1957, when it was requested (along with photocopies of Sr. Lucia's other writings) by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. According to Cardinal Bertone the secret was read by both Pope John XXIII and Pope Paul VI (see The Message of Faima [MF], "Introduction").
'He read it sometime between July 18 and August 11.
It is significant that John Paul II did not read the secret until after the assassination attempt was made on his life. He notes in Crossing the Threshold of Hope (1994),
After reading the secret, the Holy Father realized the connection between the assassination attempt and Fatima. He has since consistently attributed his survival of the gunshot wound to the intercession of Our Lady of Fatima.
As had Pius XII, John Paul II decided to consecrate not only Russia but also the entire world to her Immaculate Heart. After he read the third part of the secret, he decided to journey to Fatima on May 13, 1982, and there performed the Act of Entrustment.
This act, however, did not appear to satisfy the requested consecration, and so, "on 25 March 1984 in Saint Peter's Square, while recalling the fiat uttered by Mary at the Annunciation, the Holy Father, in spiritual union with the bishops of the world, who had been 'convoked' beforehand, entrusted all men and women and all peoples to the Immaculate Heart of Mary" (Bertone, MF).
After it became public that there was a secret of Fatima and that it mentioned Russia, many pondered Fatima in the light of Russian Communism.
1917 was a year of turmoil for Russia. Besides fighting in World War I, the country experienced two civil wars known as the February Revolution and the October Revolution. The former led to the creation of a provisional government that proved unstable ... On October 24â€“25, less than two weeks after the final appearance of Our Lady of Fatima, the second revolution resulted in the creation of the Soviet government.
In the ensuing years, Russia expanded its sphere of influence, exporting Communist ideology and revolution to other lands and martyring Christians wherever it spread. Once Pope John Paul II's 1984 consecration took place, first the Soviet bloc and then the USSR itself crumbled from a variety of social, political, and economic factors.
As the Pope himself noted:
Though he did not reveal the third part of the secret until the year 2000, six years earlier John Paul II hinted at its contents. Immediately after he meditated on the fall of Communism in connection with Fatima, he went on to write:
By the year 2000, the Holy Father felt able to reveal the final part of Fatima's secret, since "the events to which the third part of the 'secret' of Fatima refers now seem part of the past" (Sodano, MF, "Announcement").
The pontiff selected the beatification of Francisco and Jacinta on May 13, 2000 in Portugal as the occasion to announce this fact.
Then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI), prefect of the CDF, pointed out that the key to the apparition of Fatima is its call to repentance and conversion (MF, "Theological Commentary").
All three parts of the secret serve to motivate the individual to repentance, and they do so in a dramatic way.
The first part of the secret — the vision of hell — is the most important, for it reveals to individuals the tragic consequences of failure to repent and what awaits them in the invisible world if they are not converted.
In the second part, Mary says:"You have seen hell where the souls of poor sinners go ... To save them, God wishes to establish in the world devotion to my Immaculate Heart."
Cardinal Ratzinger explains:
After explaining the vision of hell, Mary spoke of a war that "will break out during the pontificate of Pius XI."
This latter war, of course, was World War II, which Sr. Lucia reckoned as having been occasioned by the annexation of Austria by Germany during the reign of Pius XI (J. de Marchi, Temoignages sur les apparitions de Fatima, 346).
Our Lady also mentioned that this would happen after a night of the "unknown light." Sr. Lucia understood this to refer to January 25, 1938, when Europe was witness to a spectacular nighttime display of light in the sky. In her third memoir she wrote:
Our Lady added:
Much has been made of the statement "Russia will be converted."
Many people have assumed this meant the Russian people as a whole would become Catholic ... But the language of the text does not require this.
The Portuguese word converterá doesn't necessarily mean converted to the Catholic faith 'It can mean simply that Russia will stop its warlike behavior, and thus "there will be peace."
This interpretation seems to be the one understood by John Paul II in a passage cited above from Crossing the Threshold of Hope.
These reflections take us to the brink of the famous "third secret" of Fatima.
There is a lot to say about this third part of the secret — more than can go into this blog post.
Therefore . . . click here to read about the Third Secret!
Jimmy Akin. "9 things to know and share about Fatima." National Catholic Register blog (May 11, 2013).
This article is reprinted with permission from National Catholic Register. To subscribe to the National Catholic Register call 1-800-421-3230.
Jimmy Akin is Director of Apologetics and Evangelization at Catholic Answers, a contributing editor to This Rock magazine, and a weekly guest on "Catholic Answers Live." He was born in Texas, grew up nominally Protestant, but at age 20 experienced a profound conversion to Christ. Planning on becoming a Protestant pastor or seminary professor, he started an intensive study of the Bible. But the more he immersed himself in Scripture the more he found to support the Catholic faith. Eventually, he was compelled in conscience to enter the Catholic Church, which he did in 1992. His conversion story, "A Triumph and a Tragedy," is published in Surprised by Truth. Among the books and pamphlets he's written are: Mass Appeal: The ABCs of Worship, Mass Confusion, The Salvation Controversy, Islam: A Catholic Perspective, The Nightmare World Of Jack T. Chick, and Annulments: What You Need To Know.
Copyright © 2013 National Catholic Register
Not all articles published on CERC are the objects of official Church teaching, but these are supplied to provide supplementary information.